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Reflection and Questions

The book Chocolate as Medicine is well disserted with a trace of the history of chocolate as medicine giving out very powerful and interesting insights and glimpses into the pronounced use of chocolate across the ages. The book is a huge confirmation and support from science that chocolate harbors great health benefits. Past and recent studies have all through highlighted chocolate as a medicine and the book Chocolate as Medicine enjoyably reconstructs this persistent finding with an inter-disciplinary perspective. The Mesoamerican populace who lived close to the indigenous development destinations of the “Chocolate Tree” (Theobromo cacao) had a huge number of recorded utilizations of chocolate as pharmaceutical, going from lightening exhaustion to forestalling heart sicknesses to treating snakebite. As of not long ago, these applications have gotten minimal sound logical examination. Or maybe, it has been the rumored wellbeing claims originating from Europe and the United States which have pulled in impressive biomedical consideration.

This book, surprisingly, depicts the hundreds of years long mission to reveal chocolate’s potential medical advantages. The creators investigate varieties in the sorts of confirmation used to bolster chocolate’s utilization as medication and note the continuous pressure over arranging chocolate as nourishment or pharmaceutical, and all the more as of late, as practical sustenance or nutraceutical. The creators, Wilson a student of history of science and prescription, and Hurst a systematic scientific expert in the chocolate business, convey their aggregate bits of knowledge to shoulder upon the improvement of thoughts and works on encompassing the utilization of chocolate as medication. Chocolate’s utilization in this way is investigated first among the Mesoamerican people groups, then as it is transported to Europe, and once more into Colonial North America.

In the past, there was considerably no known effective therapeutic means. The only remedy for a patient to help them recover from certain diseases was through lifestyle and diets for physical and mental health. For this regard, chocolate was indeed used for medicinal purposes though when dietetics was separated from medicine, chocolate began to be excipient and associated with a number of health shortcomings. The creators then concentration upon later bioscience trial endeavors which have been planned to discover both long-standing and novel proposals as to chocolate’s viability as a therapeutic and a nourishing substance. Chocolate/s notoriety as the most needed nourishment helps this present book’s interest to sustenance and biomedical researchers, cacao specialists, ethno-botanists, students of history, folklorists, and healers of different types and in addition to the general perusing gathering of people.



  1. What are the medicinal values of Chocolate?
  • Chocolate is found to have several health benefits which include:
  • Lowering cholesterol levels. The consumption of chocolate helps in reducing low density lipoprotein or bad fats.
  • Chocolate is known for its ability to prevent the decline of memory. It is suggested that two hot cups of chocolate keeps the brain awake and healthy thus reducing memory lapse and decline and streamlining mental and/or cognitive development.
  • Research has it that chocolate helps reduce the risks of cardio-metabolic disorders.
  • Chocolate reduces the risks of stroke
  • Chocolate was use anciently as a remedy for poisons from snake bites
  1. What are the risks and precautions for chocolate?

Chocolate is known for its high calories and large amounts of sugar. Therefore incase one is trying to cut weight and stay slimmer, with chocolate it will be hard to achieve that less weight.  In addition, chocolate has some kind of addiction that if one consumes it highly, they may find normal functionality hard to achieve with it. Also, due to the high sugar content in chocolate, a lot of its consumption can lead to tooth decay easily.



Wilson Phillip and Hurst Jeffrey, Chocolate as Medicine: A Quest over the Centuries, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015.

a) By analyzing the Gmail comment on the use of colors and what it says about the system?

In the design of a website or a software, the use of different colors for different meanings is quite vital for it helps in telling more about the product as well as making it more user friendly. This paper discusses the importance of different colors in the Gmail on detecting a new mail, or detecting a mail may be spa, of phishing (DeLong & Martinson, 2013).

Colors are very important in design for they carry emotional resonance with them such that there is an emotional response towards a certain color on seeing it. There is that natural aspect to associate colors with emotions for colors may be able to communicate better than words and are easily noticed. For instance, a ‘NO’ may be symbolized by a red color. In addition, colors connect uniquely and memorably to our feelings hence making them a very powerful marketing tool. The use of colors create some impression and therefore the use and choice of colors is very important in design. The way the design is presented and made to appear by the use of colors, so the perception and attention it will catch. Color has meaning, impression and communicates (DeLong & Martinson, 2013).

Gmail for instance has an allowance the user can format and customize their account using different colors of choice. The color codes highly matter and give different meanings and impressions. For instance, the colors that appear in the spam aren’t the same to those that appear in the inbox. Phishing messages and spam come with warning colors. For instance, a phishing or a spam message may blink with red to show some danger or warning (DeLong & Martinson, 2013).



  1. Discuss the pros and cons on using the red, gray and brown color.

There are advantages and disadvantages of using color in design. Advantages may include: makes the design more appealing and user friendly, provides easy communication, communication is faster with colors, it makes it easy to identify certain meanings and alerts, colors make it easy to identify a certain cluster or grouping, for instance, of mails, with colors navigation and search is easier among other advantages. However the use of colors may be a bit disadvantageous in that; colors may bring confusion and portray different meanings for different people have different relations and perceptions with a certain color, colors may too bring monotony if not well chosen, and colors may create a different impression other than what the designer meant among other cons. A bad combination of colors can bring down the site just as a good combination can market the sight to greater heights (DeLong & Martinson, 2013).

Red is the color of blood and fire symbolizing danger. It is advantageous in that it has a higher visibility than other colors and can therefore be seen quickly hence its symbolic use for danger. However it may be disadvantageous in that it can easily scare away symbolizing impulsiveness.

Gray color is a color of sorrow, detachment and isolation connecting responsibility and conservativeness. However, it is advantageous for it to makes a non-invasive feeling showing maturity, security and dependability.

The color of the earth is brown. Brown tends to blend perfectly with the background. It is stable conveying a wholesome feeling and solidity. However, it is associated with material things, convention and lots of strictness (DeLong & Martinson, 2013).


  1. Also how the use of colors in the design process is important to accommodate the needs of all users including them with disabilities?

The use of colors is quite important in accommodating the needs of all users including those with disabilities. Colors are a significant way of relating and communicating. It will be easier for a person with impaired vision to see a color quicker than some writing. It is therefore important to use colors correctly for they are a fast and quicker means of communication (DeLong & Martinson, 2013).



Marilyn DeLong & Barbara Martinson, (2013), Color and Design, A&C Black.

Ethics in information technology.


Ethics are behavioral rules and principles with a basis on ideas about what is regarded morally good and bad. Ethics determine the code of conduct highlighting the dos and don’ts in relation to human and animal rights which when violated for whatever reason, the action becomes unethical. Considerably, life and its endeavors is coined around ethics and moral values which are both different sides of the same coin. Information technology and research have become inseparable with the present life. It is therefore in accordance with the much-pronounced use of information technology and internet in research that some ethics must be put in place and followed such the standards and modes of contact are kept human, ethical and safe to other stakeholders (Reynolds, 2014). In order to well govern research, which is presently much internet oriented, there must be some kind of ethics to govern and control good ethical conduct and minimize the risks of wrong uses. Some of the benefits of research ethics include:

  • Research ethics help in propagating online peace. Times and again, online researchers have entered in bullying, abuses, and differences with fellow researcher which have ended up to threats and confrontations. With research ethics online peace is better and well sustained.
  • Online security and safety. With research ethics in place, online safety and security can be fostered. This is because online users and researchers are aware that it is against the morals and ethics to lounge attacks or temper with somebody else’s work (Ali, 2001).
  • With research ethics there is more control over privacy. The codes of ethical conduct prohibit hacking and violating someone’s privacy online.
  • With research ethics, there is less cyber theft and plagiarism for originality is respected and if one has to use other people’s information, authenticity and permission must be sought. There is much control over piracy and duplication with research ethics.
  • With research ethics, there are less chances of online fraud and creation of false information and evidence.
  • It is therefore good to have the research ethics for they foster maximum use of information technology and internet (Soraj, 2006).

There are risks of not following research ethics which may include:

  • A violation of the research ethics risks one phobia thus no success in the research they are conducting.
  • Not following the research ethics can easily lead one to jail. For instance piracy and plagiarism can earn one a jail term.
  • There is lots of misusing of data and information if the ethical codes are not properly used in research (Ali, 2001).



Ethical Code of Conduct in Information Technology

The Ethical Code of Conduct encourages ethical behavior and helps information Technology professional handle morality issues reinforcing the ethical aspect of information technology and promotes professionalism. The Ethical Code of Conduct in IT includes:

  • Authority and Responsibility- IT professional must not abuse or misuse their professional power but should be responsible in actions and deeds (Reynolds, 2014).
  • Knowledge and experience-whatever the levels of knowledge and experience, IT professionals must understand and operate at their limits. IT professionals must appreciate their skills, and acknowledge their strengths and weaknesses too. They should be ready to diversify and update their knowledge in a fast changing field. IT professional should respect the trust invested on them by their clients holding high privacy and confidentiality sharing their knowledge professional to their clients and the community as a whole.
  • Attitude- It professional should foster an optimistic positive attitude in their operation. For they don’t work for themselves but for other, they should highly consider their opinions and actions. They should not have greed and lack of consideration impact their decision making for their work has meaning only through the satisfaction of others (Soraj, 2006).
  • Communication- an IT professional should be a good communicator and must be able to understand the vitality of communication. As they communicate with clients, they must be clear and able to achieve a common understanding with clients and other cooperating parties. While transacting with a client, IT professionals should well inform the client of anything the client should know, even when the client does not ask. IT professional must also be able to communicate any bad news, not good news only.
  • Consequences of professionals’ work- IT professionals should be able to understand the consequences of their work and be highly considerate of the needs and wants of their clients, their employers, and the clients in person for the results of IT work only make meaning through application. Therefore, IT professional must aim at understanding the end result and the meaning of their work and not work egocentrically or on their own opinion or the opinion of a few disregarding the opinion of the community as a whole (Reynolds, 2014).
  • Other people- As an IT professional, one must be able to appreciate and respect the work of other people and should therefore consider other people’s rights in their work.
  • Promotion of ethics- within the Information Technology field and beyond, IT professional should aim at propagating and promoting ethically sustainable conducts maintaining high levels of integrity. Ethical conduct means making choices that are right, not selfish but regarding others as worth the rightful treatment (Anderson & Goodman, 2007).



Cases of research ethics violations and their consequences in information technology

Case 1:  plagiarism

A blogger is rearing to write the best article. He then does is research of the article topic and compares with other topics from other bloggers. He at last produces the best ranking article. However, he is found to have directly copied other bloggers’ work into his. The supervising body finds him with a research misconduct of plagiarism which he too pleads guilty. Consequently, he is stripped off the award and made to legally pay for the intellectual content theft (McKee & Porter, 2009).


Case 2

Dr. discovers an error in his paper that has been passed for publication. The error doesn’t really affect the final results of the research but is potentially misleading. Since the paper has just passed the correction stage, he decides to ignore the error to avoid embarrassment. It is unethical to keep silent and fail to publish the correction and this is an act of dishonesty and lack of objectivity. Consequently, the paper is worth disqualification for it is unethical and violates honesty and objectivity research ethics (McKee & Porter, 2009).

Case 3

Dr. A is a doctorate Lecturer in a top university. During term paper writing he realizes that his nephew has not made it in time. He then conspires with him to copy another student’s work with some paraphrasing after which his nephew passes the term paper. Afterwards, it is found that his nephew did not produce his original work but plagiarized work. After a follow up, it is discovered that he liaised with his uncle to copy another student’s work. Dr. A is guilty of violating the codes of research in privacy and confidentiality of student’s work. Later, he is called for discipline and his nephew meant to do his original paper (McKee & Porter, 2009).

Educational Ethics

Rearing to be a professional tutor and educationist in information technology, which has taken the world by surprise, I find a good understanding of ethics fundamental. But Alas! My understanding presently has gained a lot of influence from readings, cases, videos, discussion modules that we have had in this course (Beckner, 2004).

Rearing to be a professional tutor, I dint not much embrace ethics as important for my future practice and profession. I dwelled much on just sharpening my knowledge and understanding of the content.

I have read and seen videos on how different teachers and tutors approach punishments for their students. From the readings and the videos too, I see educational ethics in relation to punishments differently as there are limits of punishment, times to punish and times not to punish even if the student is wrong (Sikes & Piper, 2013).

My examination and so my understanding on educational ethics and case studies have greatly been influenced by cases we have discussed in this course. Tutor discipline and relation with opposite sex students is of paramount importance. As long as we are human and we got some default attraction to persons of the opposite sex, it is clear to me that it is very wrong and against the educational ethics to have a sexual intimate relationship with my students. We discussed cases in which tutor have related sexually intimate with their students and this was an awakening to me, since I did not see any wrong in it before. Teachers who have been indulging in such actions have ended up being ineffective and have struggled to build good morals in their students, and to the worse of it have landed jail terms for lacking the proper educational ethics and morals in their profession (Beckner, 2004).

Discussing different cases, educational ethics has dawned to me as a very important thing to have and show in my future profession. I now value the worth and dignity of every person and devote to excellence and truth towards giving and acquiring knowledge. There is no bias nor favor but equal fairness for equal opportunity to ever person willing to learn from me. Educational ethics has taught me to be calm in approaching students’ issues and that psychological understanding of a student is important for a good learning and education atmosphere (Sikes & Piper, 2013).


The Concept of Deviance

Human beings are social beings. They do exist in social groups. There are the values, ethics and norms that define such social groups which when violated attract a negative feeling or reception. Such an action to divert from the accepted norms, values and ethics are said to be deviant. Deviance is therefore any action or behavior that violates the accepted and set norms, ethics and values of a social group and its severity can easily warrant the violating victim a disapproval from a majority of that social group. Actions like being nude in public places, cross dressing can be said to be deviant.

Deviance can be criminal or non-criminal. What one group may term deviant may be very acceptable in another group. For instance, genital female mutilation is unaccepted in America but in some parts of Indonesia, clitoridectomy and infibulation is widely accepted, which is just like female genital mutilation.

The concept of deviance has been applied in the society variously. People have become deviant in their pursuit for a widely accepted social goal, belief or value. For instance, in the society that we all belong to, making money and getting high up the social strata is widely acceptable. However some of the means to go up the social strata, which is accepted, are deviant. In order to get that income up the social strata some people are turning to deviant behaviours which are condemned and unaccepted in the society, for instance prostitution and drug trafficking. They reject and violate the means culturally accepted in the society to make money, yet they still withhold and belong to the widely accepted societal value of making money for a better life. In this way, the concept of deviance is applied to violate and break an accepted norm in order to attain the same accepted norm.

Attention is a cognitive function that plays a central role in almost everything we do throughout the day

Attention is quite a central player in cognitive development and sustenance considerably in anything and everything that a person does in their day to day living. Attention is a cognitive and behavioral process that involves selectively singling out an aspect to concentrate on, be it objective or subjective, while giving a deaf ear to any other perceivable aspect different from the main aspect of concentration. Attention has much to deal with the active processing of specific information, a spotlight that has focus on a person’s awareness on a subset of the around them or in the mind. There are quite a number of aspects that directly relate to attention. Among such aspects one most influential aspect is consciousness and/or mental soberness (Pashler, 2016).

Attention which is hand in hand with the state of the mind or the cognitive section of the mind, is just one thing with the mind. Show me a person who is sober, stable and conscious in mind, and I will show you a person who can be attentive or portrays attention. Consciousness or mental soberness is a psychological construct which involves an alert cognitive state in which you are well aware of the environment around you and aware of your real self and situation. Consciousness is the process of applying ones capacity to identify an aspect and its attention focus to your sober self, and consequently judging your own self to be an agent who is well aware of the environmental aspects around you. On a conscious mental state, one is able to concentrate and stay attentive for longer spans of time. A distracted consciousness or mind means a distracted attention and concentration. Consciousness is therefore a vital aspect of attention and it allows one to function well in their cognitive actions. For instance, active skills like driving a car needs a lot of attention. If one is not conscious say owing to drug abuse thus an unstable mental state, then an accident is just most probable to happen (Styles, 2006).



Elizabeth Styles, (2006), The Psychology of Attention, Psychology Press.
Harold Pashler, (2016), Attention, Psychology Press.

Outline Abuse of New Mass Media

General Purpose: To Discuss

Specific Purpose: To discuss the influence of New Mass Media and show the rise and how it has been New Mass Media has been abused with far reaching influences on people’s lives.

Central Idea: New Mass Media has had great influence on people’s lives and the society as a whole, showing the way mass media has been abused and used for mass destruction instead of its traditional use as an instrument of spreading and sharing important information massively.


With a show of hand, how many of us in this meeting have never used any form of mass media? With all the hands down now, it means we have all in some way interacted with mass media. Have you ever thought of how the New Mass Media has been abused on daily basis without the knowledge of many?

I have been a victim of new mass media abuse a number of times. For instance, one will want to pass their aggravated feelings to their offender and find themselves abusing and exchanging bitter words over new mass media to point out their anger.

Cyber bulling has been on the rise causing psychological problems like hallucinations, anxiety and stress in students thus making them develop low self-esteem and have poor performance in schools making new mass media a huge platform for cyberbullying.

Transition Statement: Having known this now, let us first look at the traditional idea and intention of mass media.



Instrument of sharing and spreading important information

Mass media was originally meant for sharing and spreading important information with the masses. Mass media was originally also made for social purposes and for use as a platform for social interaction and awareness and as a means of fast information sharing with friends and family for closer interconnectedness.

However, the original purpose for new mass media has been much violated in the current world making it being used as a platform for other destructive intentions and purposes. There are quite a number of ways on how social media has been abused and used for the wrong purposes including:

Cyber bullying

Presently, new mass media has been used as a perfect platform for cyberbullying. There is a lot of cyberbullying in schools and over new mass media which has caused them to suffer from low self-esteem and thus record very poor outcomes in classwork and their studies.

Also cyber bullying has caused children and adults to a lot of mental effects. Such effects include stress, hallucinations, and anxiety among other adverse effects.

New social media overuse making people anti-social

Presently, people today have developed so much attachment to new social media and tend to take too much of their time on the new mass media, especially on the social media and television. At a time when media devices that can access the social media are cheaply available and pocket size portable, new mass media has made people very antisocial against its initial intention of propagating social interaction between people.

Children, adolescents, and students are spending so much of their time on their phones thus neglecting their studies and their duties, consequently posting very poor results in their studies.

Misuse in learning institutions

In learning institutions, mass media platforms for instance films and videotapes, which should be applied for tutorial and educational purposes are now being used keep the students silent and quite, for entertainment purposes for learners, and even for rewarding students who perform well and show good behaviors. Due to such diverted use of new mass media, schools are now producing poor performers and unripe finished products who are nor productive in the society as the paper testimonials show them to be.

Propagation and spread of false information

New mass media is presently being used by organization, individuals and even governments to malicious spread propaganda and false information. With new mass media, it is easy for people, governments and organizations to twist facts and abuse the fastness in mass media to justify false information in their favor for political faction. The creators of such false information elevate their standing and make the victims to appear less favorable and as the false ones.

Fueling conflicts and portraying non-issues as big vital issues

Mass media has been used for fueling and propagating conflicts, to threaten, create fear, and propagate ethnic differences and tensions. For instance, when mass media highlights that a certain ethnic group is intending to attack the other, there ensues a conflict and such messages may act as a rationale for ethnic violence.

New mass media has being used to propagate and exaggerate failures and small issues as if they are so big. New mass media can cause an ‘insect’ to be an ‘elephant’. With new mass media, it is easy to divert the attention of people and create bad scenarios and portray others faintly instead of improving the social welfare of people.


New mass media has been used for other harmful purposes apart from its intended original purpose. Though there are some positivities about it, the abuse of new mass media has brought negative effects including cyber bullying, fueling and propagation of conflicts, portraying of non-issues as issues, spreading of false information, misuse in schools, and over-use among other negative effects.

Why is an understanding of economics important in environmental science?

Broadly, economics is concerned with the study of human action and relation with the immediate environment and/or surrounding with a particular relation to how humans choose and utilize scarce resources. Since we all have an environment which we live in and around, looking to forge productive lives, understanding economics is of paramount importance if we will understand the environment around us and make a profitable and productive life around that environment. For the environment to remain productive, the aspect of economics in relation to the environment is therefore an important prerequisite for us to understand (Callan & Thomas, 2013).

Understanding and applying economics in environmental science helps us understand the importance of conserving the environment and the scarce environmental resources that are getting depleted on daily basis owing to human activity. Economics in environmental science clearly shows how human economic activities and policies do affect the environment which considerably forms the completeness of life. The environment, with the increasing pollutive and environment-harmful human activity is fast getting depleted of its richness to human living. It is therefore important to relate and interact with the environment economically and conservatively, knowledge which can only be acquired through having a good understanding in economics in relation to environmental science (Callan & Thomas, 2013).

With the world becoming more congested and crowded, more connected and more consuming, there is a lot of demand and pressure from the environment. There is a trade-off for a better environment and the economic costs there in. as the demand and pressure on the environment alarming increases on a daily basis, it is only an economic mind that will understand the need to conserve the environment for it to stay consistently productive and save it from more destruction and save a situation where all the dependents of the environment end up getting extinct (Callan & Thomas, 2013).

In a nutshell, if the environment, which is primary to human productive living, is to be protected and conserved for more consistent productivity, then an understanding of economics is quite important in environmental science (Callan & Thomas, 2013).

Statistics: Chi square

Chi square is one of the most important and adversely used methods in biology for probability distribution for inferential statistics. Generally, Chi square is based on variable distribution proportions which are available in the experimental condition. Mainly, the Chi square test is used in two distinct ways which include: Goodness of fit test, and the test for independence of attributes. Goodness f fit test is much used when there is a wide accepted theory and one wants to whether their observed values are in agreement or not with the theory. Independence of attributes is applied to gain an understanding on how two attributes are related to each other. It studies if there is a difference between the proportions of the two variable. There are three steps that are followed for every Chi square test be it for goodness of fit tests or for test of independence of attributes. These include: development of hypothesis, doing calculations, and third, finding the ‘p’ value (Modak, 2013).

Chi square test is widely used for it is easy to compute, can easily be used for categorical nominal scale data, can be widely used to study the difference among a variety of considered variables, it doesn’t make assumptions on data distribution, and is effective for large sets of data. However, chi square test cannot be used with biased sampling, when there is small sample size, in cases where the dependent variables are inclusively and mutually dependent, when data is anything except frequency data, and in cases where the relationship strength is a requirement (Textbook Equity Edition, 2014).

Non-parametric tests aka distribution-free tests are much based on very few assumptions thus they are less powerful to parametric tests. A principal investigator may select a non-parametric test when:

  • The area under study or investigation is best represented by using the median, or
  • The sample size is very small, or
  • The ranked data, ordinal data or outliers cannot be removed (University of South Florida, 2008).

Poland’s Economy

Poland’s economy is currently highly rated. It is the largest in central Europe, the sixth in the European Union and remarkably the largest among the European Union ex-real socialist members. Through economic liberalization policy, the economy of Poland was the only one that made it to avoid recession in the European Union during the downturn of economies between 2008 and 2009. However, despite the remarkable economy, Poland still faces challenges and issues economically which may include:

Political uncertainty- in its initial escapades after separating from the Soviet Union and entering the European Union, Poland was a model for social and political stability. However, such social and political stability is poised to change with the populist law and justice party having won the parliamentary and presidential elections in 2015. The populist Law and Justice Party runs on a higher taxes on foreign-owned business platform and curtails the reliance of the country on foreign capital. With such a foreign-investors-discouraging platform and sentiments of isolation, it is highly susceptible that Poland will lose its social and political reputation discouraging foreign trade and investment hence negatively affecting the country’s economy (Central Intelligence Agency, 2015).

Fiscal Policy- the reeling in of Poland’s federal debt which amounts to approximately 50% of GDP is economic threatening. The platform of the PiS which advocates for increased family benefits, low taxes on medium and small size businesses, and low pension age, it is quite difficult to achieve an economic balance in the near future. Investors and other economic participants are therefore skeptical that Poland can foster a healthy economic environment and reel in the public debt (Kremer & Weber, 2013).

The European Union Economy as a whole- the economy of Poland much depends on the well-being of the European Union. With the hiccups, uncertainties and challenges that the European Union is facing, then Poland is poised to economic struggles and failure. With Russia which is a key trade partner with Poland having aggressive foreign policies and the political externalities it has on the European Union, it is highly susceptible that Poland is operating on a major brink of economic hardship and struggle. The slowdown of European Union, for instance growth in china, is a major challenge and threat Poland’s economy (Central Intelligence Agency, 2015).

The economic development of Poland’s economy owed to different factors including political, social, cultural and agricultural factors. However agricultural factors rank the most impacting with agriculture persistently being privatized hence heightened productivity (Kremer & Weber, 2013).

America, my country does have a long-term economic vision. This includes the strategy for American innovation. The strategy includes investing in research and economic development, use of technology providing openings in investment and economic growth and making more innovative strides through the federal government to improve economic performance and create an economic-growth environment for innovation in private and civil sectors. The strategy to encompasses the advancement of manufacturing, precision medicine, BRAIN initiative, smart cities, advanced vehicles, educational technologies and research, clean energy and energy efficient technologies, new frontiers in  computing among other economic boosting and propelling advances (Gordon, 2016).

Strategically, with such a vision, America is well placed and positioned to sustain positive economic growth over the next five years. Though the economic vision is one that captivates and seems viable, it is too poised to meet some challenges. Such include the instability of the dollar, the vast changes and fluctuations in technology, the high-end cost of living, the staggering European Union among other factors. Currently the economic situation which posts some positive results owing to the industrialization, urbanization and technology in the country. Main obstacles include: the fluctuating value of the dollar, the high cost of living, the changing technological patterns, and the growth in population among other factors (Gordon, 2016).